**Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS**)

Our lessons, activities, and explorations help make tangible mathematics and science topics and can be used as supplements in a traditional year-long classroom. The most apparent standards alignment for Strawbees is using NGSS for Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science (ETS) and we hope that if this is not your local standard you can use it as an example of how to align with yours.

For more information about the NGSS take a look at their website: https://www.nextgenscience.org/instruction-and-assessment-supports/understanding-ngss-design

### Engineering Design

*Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

In the creative learning spiral and building students need to be explicit in defining: the problem, ways for success, and any constraints to the problem. At this age students should be able to write an explanation or articulate to the teacher these constraints and impacts

*Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Students should be explicit in brainstorming and developing different possible solutions. This can be done by them building new solutions or observing other students’ solutions. At this age students should be able to also show a clear criteria for their ranking of possible solutions and articulate in verbal or written form why

*Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success*.

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Students can develop new solutions or observe other students’ solutions to compare data and determine success. Is recommended that while testing, students set their own metrics to collect for data.

*Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Before the design and build stages, discussion should focus on what would metrics of success be as well as what metrics to monitor to make sure an optimal design was achieved.

*Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

In the creative cycle and building students need to be explicit in defining: the problem, ways for success, and any contraints to the problem. At this age students can use a picture or simple sentences to show work

*Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Students should be explicit in brainstorming and developing different possible solutions. This can be done by them building new solutions or observing other students’ solutions.

*Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

All activities, students should be testing and updating their builds based on the problem. As they test, students should set up variables and controls to help improve their builds.

All Strawbees activities can meet the MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3, and MS-ETS1-4 performance expectations Middle School and 3-5-ETS1-1, 3-5-ETS1-2 and 3-5-ETS1-3 Elementary School.

### Energy, Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

*Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

This lesson can be paired with discussion around trajectories of projectiles and experimenting with objects of different size and mass.

*Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Use a camera with burst image to capture the different motion and calculate the distance over time measure (speed) and plot its kinetic energy for different objects of different mass.

For the Catapult, you can also use the trail of the projectile to observe nd calculate speed of its trajectory and plot its kinetic energy for projectiles of different mass.

*Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Students will be able to see how force on an object can cause it to move in a direction, creating an unbalanced force. To fully address the standard, discussion should also include what happens when equal forces are interacting with an object. For example, forces pushing on both sides of the ball will cause the ball to not move.

*Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Students will be able to make observations on an object’s motion when creating the rollercoaster as well as using the motors for different challenges. Students can collect data of the object’s motion and make prediction on patterns of the objects when they move.

*Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

During the activity, lesson or exploration, students can collect evidence of moving objects by using a time lapse camera, or timing how fast objects or builds move.

The Catapult, Roller Coaster, Mechanical Arm activities, and the Habits of Learning exploration meet the MS-PS3-1 and MS-PS2-2 on Middle School and 3-PS2-1, 3-PS2-2, and 4-PS3-1 on Elementary School.

### Earth and Human Activity

*Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.*

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

Discussions can focus around ways to make communities more sustainable for the environment. At this stage students can draw a picture or write a few sentences to explain their method and how they would monitor.

*Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard*.

**How to meet/extend this standard?**

In all the activities, lessons, or explorations you can connect your builds to the real-world by asking how that build will stand in the real world. During the builds, ask students if it could survive a weather-related hazard in the context of where it would exist.

The City Building lesson plan meets the MS-ESS3-3 on Middle School and 3-ESS3-1 on Elementary School. Although the lesson plan content doesn’t focus on assessment and quantitative measures of learning, it offers clues and suggestions on how to present the subject and set a creative context for students to explore their ideas.